Garcinia and/or hydroxycitrate
Garcinia is a plant native to India and Southeast Asia, whose rind contains hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which is purported to affect appetite by preventing fat storage–blocking ATP-citralyase. ATP-citralyase is a key enzyme in cellular fatty acid synthesis and its storage, and thus, HCA may inhibit lipogenesis . Fifteen RCTs conducted between 1998 and 2016 were identified. Only 4 of the 15 studies (27%) showed low bias scores for methodologic and reporting quality. Of these 15 studies, 8 were conducted in Asia, 3 in the United States, 2 in Brazil, and 1 each in several other countries. Funding sources were not revealed for nine studies; the remaining were funded by a combination of local government and industry sponsorship. Duration of the studies lasted from 2 to 16 weeks. The number of participants in each arm ranged from 10 to 69 participants, with participant age ranging from 21 to 60 years. The 5 Best Fat Burning Pills For Women Over 40 Three studies did not assess differences in weight between arms pre/post, and five studies (33%) reported significant decreases in weight. Of the trials noting a low risk of bias, two studies reported significant weight loss (ranging from −1.3 kg to −3.6 kg) , whereas the other two were nonsignificant .