Chromium is a nonessential biometal present in many foods (mostly attributed to food processed in stainless steel equipment). It is proposed to play a role in glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism by its potentiating effects on insulin action. It may directly enhance serotonin activity and/or impact potential downstream effects on dopaminergic signaling on central insulin receptors. By altering these neurotransmitters, chromium is thought to affect several pathways involved in the central control of food intake, satiety, and energy hemostasis . Of the six RCTs (between 1996 and 2016), three had a low risk of bias (n = 3). Five studies (83%) were conducted in the United States; all were industry sponsored. The number of participants ranged from 6 to 66 per arm, and study duration ranged from 40 days to 24 weeks. One study included only females; three did not report sex of participants. Of the six trials, one did not report differences between groups, and of those that reported results, only two reported a significant weight loss. 2022’s Best Fat Burning Supplements For Men Of the three studies with low bias , only one demonstrated a significant reduction in weight (−1.4 ± 2.9 kg) with 400 µg of chromium over 72 days (Supporting Information Tables S7A-D).
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Ephedra/caffeine The plant Ephedra sinica’s main proposed active ingredient for weight loss is ephedrine, which is often taken in conjuction with caffeine. Its proposed mechanism of action for weight loss is
Mind-body Mind-body interventions that were evaluated for weight loss efficacy included behavioral therapies (e.g., mindfulness, stress management), hypnosis, meditation, and massage. In general, these strategies are designed to target maladaptive
Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide that is extracted with alkaline substances from the hard exterior of crustaceans, such as shellfish. Chitosan is used medically to decrease bleeding for wound dressings